Array Processing Kronecker Product Beamforming

Jacob. Benesty, Israel Cohen, Jingdong Chen

Research output: Book/ReportBookpeer-review


The focus of this book is on array processing and beamforming with Kronecker products. It considers a large family of sensor arrays that allow the steering vector to be decomposed as a Kronecker product of two steering vectors of smaller virtual arrays. Instead of directly designing a global beamformer for the original array, once the steering vector has been decomposed, smaller virtual beamformers are designed and separately optimized for each virtual array. This means the matrices that need to be inverted are smaller, which increases the robustness of the beamformers, and reduces the size of the observations. The book explains how to perform beamforming with Kronecker product filters using an unconventional approach. It shows how the Kronecker product formulation can be used to derive fixed, adaptive, and differential beamformers with remarkable flexibility. Furthermore, it demonstrates how fixed and adaptive beamformers can be intelligently combined, optimally exploiting the advantages of both. The problem of spatiotemporal signal enhancement is also addressed, and readers will learn how to perform Kronecker product filtering in this context.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
Edition1st ed. 2019.
StatePublished - 2019

Publication series

NameSpringer Topics in Signal Processing, 18
PublisherSpringer International Publishing


  • Signal processing


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