## Abstract

We study the worst-case time complexity of solving two agreement problems, consensus and broadcast, in systems with n processes subject to no more than t process failures. In both problems, correct processes must decide on a common value; in the consensus problem, each process has an input and if the inputs of correct processes are all the same, then that must be the common decision, whereas in the broadcast problem, only one process (the sender) has an input and if the sender is correct, then its input must be the common decision. We focus on systems where there is an upper bound ∆ on the message delivery time but it is expected that typically, messages arrive much faster, say within some time d. While ∆ may or may not be known in advance, d is inherently unknown and specific to each execution. The goal is to design deterministic algorithms whose running times have minimal to no dependence on ∆, a property called responsiveness. We present a generic algorithm transformation that, when applied to appropriate eventually-synchronous consensus (or broadcast) algorithms, results in consensus (or broadcast) algorithms for send omission failures, authenticated Byzantine failures, and unauthenticated Byzantine failures whose running times have no dependence on ∆; their worst-case time complexities are all O(td), which is asymptotically optimal. The algorithm for send omission failures requires n > 2t, while those for Byzantine failures, both authenticated and unauthenticated, require n > 3t. The failure-resilience of the unauthenticated Byzantine algorithm is optimal. For authenticated Byzantine failures, existing agreement algorithms provide worst-case time complexity O(t∆) when n is at most 3t. (When n ≤ 2t, broadcast is solvable while consensus is not.) We prove a lower bound on the worst-case time complexity of ⌊(3t − n)/2⌋ d + ∆ when n is at most 3t. Although lower bounds of ∆ and (t + 1)d were already known, our new lower bound indicates that, at least when n ≤ 2t, it is impossible for an algorithm to pay these bounds in parallel.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | 27th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems, OPODIS 2023 |

Editors | Alysson Bessani, Xavier Defago, Junya Nakamura, Koichi Wada, Yukiko Yamauchi |

ISBN (Electronic) | 9783959773089 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jan 2024 |

Event | 27th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems, OPODIS 2023 - Tokyo, Japan Duration: 6 Dec 2023 → 8 Dec 2023 |

### Publication series

Name | Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs |
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Volume | 286 |

ISSN (Print) | 1868-8969 |

### Conference

Conference | 27th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems, OPODIS 2023 |
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Country/Territory | Japan |

City | Tokyo |

Period | 6/12/23 → 8/12/23 |

## Keywords

- basic round model
- bounded-delay model
- Byzantine failures
- omission failures

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Software