One-dimension statistical parametric mapping in lower limb biomechanical analysis: A systematic scoping review

Tomer Yona, Netanel Kamel, Galya Cohen-Eick, Inbar Ovadia, Arielle Fischer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Biomechanics significantly impacts sports performance and injury prevention. Traditional methods like discrete point analysis simplify continuous kinetic and kinematic data, while one-dimensional Statistical Parametric Mapping (spm1d) evaluates entire movement curves. Nevertheless, spm1d's application in sports and injury research is limited. As no systematic review exists, we conducted a scoping systematic review, synthesizing the current applications of spm1d across various populations, activities, and injuries. This review concludes by identifying gaps in the literature and suggesting areas for future research. Research question: What research exists using spm1d in sports biomechanics, focusing on the lower limbs, in what populations, and what are the current research gaps? Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and ProQuest databases for the following search string: “(((knee) OR (hip)) OR (ankle)) OR (foot) OR (feet) AND (statistical parametric mapping)”. English peer-reviewed studies assessing lower limb kinetics or kinematics in different sports or sports-related injuries were included. Reviews, meta-analyses, conference abstracts, and grey literature were excluded. Results: Our search yielded 165 papers published since 2012. Among these, 112 examined healthy individuals (67 %), and 53 focused on injured populations (33 %). Running (n = 45), cutting (n = 25), and jumping/landing (n = 18) were the most common activities. The predominant injuries were anterior cruciate ligament rupture (n = 21), chronic ankle instability (n = 18), and hip-related pain (n = 9). The main research gaps included the unbalanced populations, underrepresentation of common sports and sport-related injuries, gender inequality, a lack of studies in non-laboratory settings, a lack of studies on varied sports gear, and a lack of reporting standardization. Significance: This review spotlights crucial gaps in spm1d research within sports biomechanics. Key issues include a lack of studies beyond laboratory settings, underrepresentation of various sports and injuries, and gender disparities in research populations. Addressing these gaps can significantly enhance the application of spm1d in sports performance, injury analysis, and rehabilitation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-146
Number of pages14
JournalGait and Posture
StatePublished - Mar 2024


  • Gait analysis
  • Locomotion
  • Lower extremity
  • Lower limb biomechanics
  • One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping
  • Sports injuries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Rehabilitation


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